# High Energy Theory Seminar

*,*UC Berkeley

*,*

In AdS/CFT, two-sided black holes are described by states in the tensor product of two Hilbert spaces associated with the two asymptotic boundaries of the spacetime. Understanding how such a tensor product arises from the bulk perspective is an important open problem in holography, known as the factorisation puzzle. In this paper, we show how the Hilbert space of bulk states factorises due to non-perturbative contributions of spacetime wormholes: the trace over two-sided states with different particle excitations behind the horizon factorises into a product of traces of the left and right sides. This precisely occurs when such states form a complete basis for the bulk Hilbert space. We prove that the factorisation of the trace persists to all non-perturbative orders in 1/G_N consequently providing a possible resolution to the factorisation puzzle from the gravitational path integral. In the language of von Neumann algebras, our results provide strong evidence that the algebra of one-sided observables transitions from a Type II or Type III algebra, depending on whether or not perturbative gravity effects are included, to a Type I factor when including non-perturbative corrections in the bulk.

The talk is in 469 Lauritsen.

Contact theoryinfo@caltech.edu for Zoom information.